economic importance of plant breeding

In the EU, cultivation of genetically modified plants is nearly negligible due to procedures required for bringing plants classified as GMOs to market. The International Service for the Acquisition of Agribiotech Applications (ISAAA). European Commission. However, no significant differences were found. Therefore, the respondents have been asked to self-assess their knowledge on the impact of regulatory policies on the company. In 2017, only 131,535 (James, 2017) of the 11.9 million total hectares for permanent crops (Eurostat, 2018) were planted with the one genetically modified crop approved for cultivation, an insect-resistant maize. The decision of the CJEU currently places plants produced by NPBTs under the regulations for GMOs. The F1 hybrid of crosses between different genotypes is often much more vigorous than its parents. This gives confidence for a high validity of the answers on the core measurements of the survey. GM Crops Food 3 (4), 258–264. Economic contribution 11 3.1.1. Physiol. Kokcis, V., Weda, J., Van der Noll, R. (2013). c = two-sided significant difference vegetable from all (P < 0.05). Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics. Commercial plant breeding in the UK 7 3.0. As an effect, these crops become more suitable for society. Companies that mainly serve the European market and are smaller in size expect their competitiveness to be less affected by the ruling. Some applications and/or applicants might be over-regulated while others might be under-regulated (e.g., Shavell, 1984). First, a general economic model of regulation and its implications for investment in NPBTs is introduced, followed by a presentation of the potential implications based on a recent survey of the Dutch plant breeding sector. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful. Measuring the bioeconomy: economics and policies. Ex post liability for harm vs. Ex ante safety regulation: substitutes or complements? DZ acknowledges support by the Innovative Genomics Institute, a joint UC Berkeley-University of California, San Francisco center. The advantage of ex-ante regulatory standards is that potential damage can be reduced before damage actually happens. Science 363 (6434), 1390– 1391. doi: 10.1126/science.aav6316, Keywords: CRISPR-Cas, regulation, plant breeding sector, impact, Dutch plant breeders, Court of Justice of the European Union, genetically modified organism, new plant breeding technologies, Citation: Wesseler J, Politiek H and Zilberman D (2019) The Economics of Regulating New Plant Breeding Technologies - Implications for the Bioeconomy Illustrated by a Survey Among Dutch Plant Breeders. How to manage the Union’s diversity: the regulation of new plant breeding technologies in Confédération paysanne and Others. An overview of the complete survey and the data is provided in the Supplementary Materials. Plant breeding has been crucial in increasing production of crops to meet the ever increasing demand for food. GxE can occur for quantitative traits of economic importance and is often studied in plant and animal breeding, genetic epidemiology, pharmacogenomics and conservational biology research. A number of stakeholder groups have urged the European Commission to update the approval process for GMOs. Plant breeding is a critical tool in the fight for food security and responsible environmental stewardship in the 21st century. Specifically, the disagreement addresses whether resulting data should be dealt with as ordinal or cardinal measurements. 10:1597. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01597. (2017). The genus Brassica is one of 51 genera in the tribe Brassiceae belonging to the crucifer family, and is the economically most important genus within this tribe, containing 37 different species (Gomez-Campo 1980). Altering crops with the help of breeding practice brings changes in the genetic structure of a plant. They include wider implications for food security (Zaidi et al., 2019) and the development of the bioeconomy, particularly in Europe (Wesseler and von Braun, 2017). Modern plant breeding could not exist, could not succed, without recourse to a continuing supply of biologically diverse populations at the variety, species, and family level, and now (thanks to biotechnology) at any level in the world of nature. (2019). “Efficient Regulation,” in Regulation vs. This is a sensible approach, as it would also avoid the need for labeling products and related problems derived from plants developed by exempted NPBTs. This hypothesis was primarily tested by the statement Q9: “The decision of the EU Court of Justice has a negative impact on the competitiveness of our company.” A majority of 60.6% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with this statement, whereas 24.2% disagreed. When it comes to the UK leaving the EU, the real issue is the complete uncertainty: Are we leaving? Plant breeding and genetics are powerful tools for increasing plant productivity through development of improved varieties. *Correspondence: Justus Wesseler, Justus.Wesseler@wur.nl, Front. doi: 10.1146/annurev-resource-100516-053701, Wesseler, J., Smart, R., Thomson, J., Zilberman, D. (2017). Plant breeders must have access to genetic variation in crop species.Plant breeders must be equipped with the tools to respond quickly to new demands by developing accelerated breeding … (2010). In making an investment decision, the product life can be divided in four important phases: research and development (R&D); approval (A); marketing (M); post-marketing liability (L). These characteristics make the sector a sensible object of study for a first assessment of the expected effects and implications of the ruling. http://edepot.wur.nl/472607, Venus, T. J., Drabik, D., Wesseler, J. EU policy on GMOs: a quick scan of the economic consequences (The Hague: LEI Wageningen UR). 56, 1379–1396. Durability of resistance is a highly variable phenomenon. Biotechnology will increase the economic importance of breeding for resistance. New plant breeding technologies for food security. Although the latter result was likely to have low significance due to the small number (N = 5) of respondents having a non-EU main market. This website collects anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages. Common Market Law Rev. The notable achievements and briefly presented below: The ornamental horticultural production industry thrives on the development of new varieties through plant breeding. The coexistence regulations in the EU may severely limit where GMO traits can be produced and thus increase production costs. The great economic importance of this cost-effective and biologically safe means of protection is obvious in all types and areas of plant production. Received: 09 August 2019; Accepted: 13 November 2019;Published: 20 December 2019. Biotech. Plant breeding is the science of creating new varieties through the modification of the plant genome, which accelerates the production of plants with desired traits, such as higher productivity, nutritional value, and enhanced tolerance against drought and disease. The online survey was distributed by e-mail to the general contact address of the company. CRISPR plants now subject to tough GM laws in European Union. Averages are preferred in the graphical presentation, because they pose less risk for extreme (i.e., misleading) results compared to other central tendencies (e.g., modus). The disadvantage is that those standards apply uniformly without recognizing heterogeneity among applications as well as applicants. (2019) Maximum vs. Moreover, the two respondents who pointed out the importance of a level-playing field (over the importance of the use of CRISPR-Cas), were both in the potato sector. This should lead to the conclusion that plants developed using NPBTs should not be regulated differently than those developed using “conventional” plant breeding methods. During the course of the survey, two reminders were sent to the units in the sample. 1016/j.tibtech.2019.02.004, Kalaitzandonakes, N., Alston, J., Bradford, K. (2007). For EU-based companies who primarily compete on non-EU markets, the limiting factors of the CJEU ruling might lead to larger negative effects in competitiveness. Some countries even have strict field trial requirements that are often technically infeasible and economically unviable (Kuntz, 2012). Wageningen World 1, 28–33. I must confess, I have yet to try a Beyond Meat burger. Unfortunately, no quantitative overview exists of the Dutch plant breeding sector, categorized by seed sector. The approval process may entail performance standards that have to be followed, which can in some cases be prohibitively high, such as in the case of some GMO coexistence regulations (Beckmann et al., 2010). 80 (4), 888–901. I like them. 5 (4), 541–542. • Plant Breeding must be one of the highest priorities of government, policy makers, and donors to ensure food in quality and quantity available to an each day hungrier world. The majority (72.8%) of the respondents agree or strongly agree with the statement of having a good overview on the impact of regulatory policies on their company. DZ contributed to the section on the economics of NPBTs and the Introduction and Discussion and Conclusions sections and reviewed the complete contribution. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. (2018). All these phases are characterized by uncertainty over the benefits and costs as well as by their time length (see e.g., Purnhagen and Wesseler, 2019). 2013-11 Amsterdam: SEO Economisch Onderzoek). The main results of the survey are provided in Figure 1, showing the average scores, differentiated by seed sector in Figure 1A and by company size in Figure 1B. (2019). 9, 17.1–17.24. 05946-264232, E. mail info@uou.ac.in Those include global malnutrition, reduced rural income and reduced employment in the EU. Annu. New plant breeding technologies (NPBTs) are increasingly used for developing new plants with novel traits. Within the online company database the companies which are categorized under “agriculture” (31 units), “fruit trees” (1 unit), “in vitro laboratoria” (9 units), “vegetable seeds” (25 units), and a selection of the relevant actors (9 out of 22) within “other services” have been considered to be part of the population we consider. (2018). (2009). JW wrote major parts of the contribution, supervised the survey, and finalized the contribution. These costs are affected by regulation, as compliance with regulations may extend the duration of research in the lab and the field, and increase the costs. Higher yields with hybrid corn and many vegetable crops. However, also no significant difference was found. Plant breeding has increased primary agricultural product supply by a significant amount, thus stabilising markets and reducing price volatility, according to the study results. Biotech. Importance of Plant Breeding. Basic Marketing Research (New Jersey: Pearson Education). Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe. doi: 10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2010-9. The ruling frustrated many in the field of biotechnology and led experts to speculate about its potential effects on EU-based plant breeders. Plant breeding - Plant breeding - Hybrid varieties: The development of hybrid varieties differs from hybridization in that no attempt is made to produce a pure-breeding population; only the F1 hybrid plants are sought. Insight into the basis of durability is still insufficient. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts. Nat. Biotechnology Regulation and Trade (New York: Springer). First of all, the effects of the decision depend on the existence of equally important alternatives. ‘I’d like to congratulate the BSPB on the success of its FAIR PLAY campaign in cooperation with the UK Farming Unions. Figure 1 Overview of average results of the survey statements on a five-point Likert-scale, excluding not relevant (0) responses ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree. The results show that plant breeders experience a financial barrier because of the ruling, with perceived negative impact on competitiveness and investments in CRISPR-Cas as a result. Burns, A., Bush, R. (2008). “In the second half of the last century, genetic improvements were responsible for half the progress made. molecular biology, are advancing rapidly and plant breeding will provide even greater contributions in the near future. (2019). Econ. One is imposing ex-ante regulatory standards for prior approval before commercialization. Especially in vitro labs and companies who operate in multiple sectors (including operations as in vitro lab) appear to disagree with statement Q10. View all A recently published survey (Martin-Laffon, 2019) on the CRISPR-patent landscape shows patent applications in the EU are substantially lacking behind other regions in the world, and not only in agriculture but also in the fields of medical, industrial, and technical applications (Table 1). and economic development of plants for humanity. Eurostat. Compliance costs for regulatory approval of new biotech crops. Econ. It was expected that the introduction of new more precise and nature-like plant breeding techniques, especially CRISPR-Cas, would overcome the resistance to the application of modern biotechnology in plant breeding and unleash the potential of improved plant varieties (Eriksson, 2019). doi: 10.1038/s41587-019-0138-7, Purnhagen, K., Kok, E., Kleter, G., Schebesta, H., Visser, R. G. F., Wesseler, J. J. Agr. The guiding text asked to forward the survey to the relevant R&D manager within the company. 25 (5), 509–511. These concerns relate to the cost of approval procedures and their potential negative impact on competitiveness and firms’ investments in CRISPR-based technologies (Callaway, 2018). “Such science-based information should be widely available and should be a starting point when discussing the future of plant breeding in the EU.”. The recent ruling by the EU’s highest court that requires plants developed by these mutagenesis-based modification methods to follow the approval process for GMOs, therefore came as a blow (Purnhagen et al., 2019). Am. The survey of Dutch plant breeding companies largely confirms this intuition. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tag00025&language=en. The vegetable sector appeared to agree significantly more with statement Q8 than companies in other sectors. Retrieved 30/01/2018. The same can be observed for other countries (Eriksson et al., 2019). doi: 10.2307/2555680. The incentive for firms to invest in NPBTs largely depends on the net benefits of the investment, which are influenced by ex-ante regulatory standards and ex-post liability. What is plant breeding? doi: 10.1111/nph.15627. Plant breeding contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions—about 3.4 billion tons of direct CO2 emissions were avoided in Europe thanks to plant breeding innovation over the last 15 years, Noleppa found. The advantage of such a labeling scheme is that it is a market-driven response to a demand among some consumers, and similar to products sold under an organic label. Government of the Netherlands. For some questions a not relevant-option was provided. Keeping this cookie enabled helps us to improve our website. Besides testing the hypothesized negative effects of the CJEU Ruling, the results of the survey allow insights in two more factors that are related to the impact of the hypothesized effects of the ruling of the CJEU. Consider how plant breeding has touched your farm: Plant breeding brought wheat to the West in 1906 with the variety Marquis paving the way for even more improved varieties. The firm has more detailed knowledge about the product than the regulator. Production losses would have been highest with sunflower seeds, cereals and some oilseeds. Lastly, there was room for additional comments. Statistical results graph panel (B): b = two-sided significant difference potato from all (P < 0.05). In summary, the regulatory environment effects the costs and benefits of investments in NPBTs. In some species such as tulips, the sepals and petal… Beckmann, V., Soregaroli, C., Wesseler, J. To judge the representativeness of the sample, usually a description of the population should be sketched. The goals of plant breeding are to produce crop varieties that boast unique and … Concurrentie in de kiem: Mededinging in de Nederlandse veredelingssector (SEO-rapport; Nr. Econ. The importance of plants and plant products is greatly regarded by people in society. Coase, R. (1960). In the EU, food products will still be regulated under the EU food law (Purnhagen, 2019). 68 (1), 182–198. Sepals are usually green and they enclose and protect the developing bud. Food Policy 78, 26–37. Economics: E-Journal 4, 2010–2019. In 2011, of the then 400 Dutch companies active in the plant breeding sector, 385 were affiliated with PLANTUM (Kokcis et al., 2013). The traits include reproductive fitness, longevity, height, weight, yield, and disease resistance. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. These questions were answered on a five-point Likert-scaled range of response possibilities, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A tremendous part of this carbon would be released into the atmosphere in the form of CO2 if that land was used for farming,” he says. One of the most striking results was the relative optimism of companies in the sector about more lenient legislation in the next five years, despite the stated negative effects. (2017). The survey was open for response from 7th to 20th February 2019. Level of market share 26 4.3. Biotech. • communication to the public on the importance of plant breeding for improving environmental and economic sustainability, nutrition, productivity, and food security; • advocating for the work of plant breeders; • outreach to potential public and private partners, both domestically and globally One should, however, consider the ordinal character of the data when directly comparing means of subgroups. Firms in general are required to provide a set of standard regulatory information, but regulators have the option to seek additional case-specific information. Social implications might be expected as well.”. The differentiation in the responses among company sizes is confirmed by the results of the corresponding Kruskal-Wallis test (see Supplementary Material for details). It should be seen as a call-to-action to policymakers to ensure both science-based policy as well as a supportive regulatory environment that fosters and drives future innovation,” von Essen says. When are we leaving? The outermost whorl is called calyx and consists of sepals. doi: 10.4161/gmcr.21231, Martin-Laffon, J., Kuntz, M., Ricroch, A. E. (2019). Although it is rather customary to deal with such data as being cardinal, the intervals cannot be assumed to be equal from a theoretical perspective (Sullivan and Artino, 2013). Plant breeding is a discipline of applied plant science that deals with the improvement of crop plants through the production of hybrid crop plants, which are superior to the original plant varieties. Most striking is that the companies in the potato sector on average disagree with the statement Q9, and therefore differ from all other sectors. Seed industry stakeholders welcome the report’s findings, with European Seed Association secretary-general Garlich von Essen saying it shows the importance of plant breeding innovation for the EU itself, as well as its contribution to achieving overarching policy objectives like food security, environmental protection, and biodiversity preservation. The main problem for ex-ante regulatory standards is caused by information asymmetries between the regulator and the firm. Nat. Defra supports the UK plant breeding industry on its Crop alteration is a widely used practiced in agriculture. It is often presumed that the stringent regulations of GMOs in the EU only affect the agriculture and food sector, but not the medical sector and other parts of the bioeconomy. EU member states hold deeply entrenched and diverging views on GMOs (Smart et al., 2015), and finding a qualified majority for a change will remain a challenge for the European Commission. Also, no significant result was found when differentiating between companies with main market within the EU or non-EU (2-sided asymptotic sig, 0.865). Furthermore, the importance of the CRISPR-Cas technology for the companies responding is of interest. (2010). importance of plant breeders’ rights for the economic success of plant breeding and the value of BSPB’s royalty collection systems for future investment in breeding. Micro-sized companies expect significantly milder effects on competition than larger-sized companies. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Backus, G., Berkhout, P., Eaton, D., de Kleijn, T., van Mil, E., Roza, P., et al. Malyksa notes that the sentiment among European Parliament members was that plant breeding has a key role to play if the sector wants to help meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population. The survey also shows that companies with markets outside the EU intend to reallocate their research. Rev. Whenever the address was available, the survey was directly sent to the relevant R&D manager or department. If NPBTs do not fall under the GMO regulation, labeling for food products will be simplified and it reduces costs. Eds. Nature 560 (7716), 16. doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05814-6, Castellari, E., Soregaroli, C., Venus, T. J., Wesseler, J. Therefore, non-parametric tests will be applied. RAND J. Econ. method of altering the genetic pattern of plants to increase their value and utility for human welfare The demand for regulating NPBTs originates from concerns about potential negative implications for human health and the environment. Companies in the relatively technology-extensive seed-potato development have diverse expectations (Q6). A recent survey of Dutch plant breeding companies gives a first empirical insight on the impact of the ruling. The relatively technology-intensive sector of vegetable seeds development (Kokcis et al., 2013) expects the strongest negative effects on competitiveness and investments in CRISPR-Cas applications. Ernst van den Ende on CRISPR-Cas. It has been used to improve the quality of nutrition in products for humans and animals. The survey measures the attitude of breeding companies towards the ruling of the EU Court of Justice that subjected the use of CRISPR-Cas in the development of new plant varieties under the general EU regulations around GMOs. 37 (6), 613–620. New Phytol. |, https://eci.ec.europa.eu/011/public/#/screen/home, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01597/full#supplementary-material, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tag00025&language=en, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The population we consider consists of companies that are affiliated with PLANTUM, the association that serves the interests of around 350 companies in the plant breeding sector in the Netherlands. In the summer of 2018, the Court of Justice of the EU ruled that on CRISPR-based plant breeding technologies are not immediately exempted from existing EU regulation of GMOs (Purnhagen et al., 2018). This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Getting an imported GM crop approved in China. In fact, Noleppa adds, a remarkable drop in arable production would have occurred across all arable crops without plant breeding. Purnhagen, K., Wesseler, J. The high coverage of the PLANTUM database shows that this population includes 87.5 per cent of Dutch plant breeding companies. (2019). Further important benefits of plant breeding are characterized and quantified in the study. The study, titled “The economic, social and environmental value of plant breeding in the European Union”, provides information that follows up on and supports a European Parliament report from 2014, which said the EU should play a leading role in the development of sustainable plant breeding techniques and in promoting agricultural and plant breeding research and practice. This is equivalent to the biodiversity found in 6.6 million hectares of Brazilian rainforest and savannahs. Mapping the Plant Breeding Sector 11 3.1. (2007). Among the EU-members, the Netherlands has an especially strong position in the development, propagation and trade of reproduction materials. The number of employees was chosen as the measure of company size, since it is expected to lead to more reliable data than sales. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, Leeway to Operate with Plant Genetic Resources As the regulatory environment differs by country and region, this provides different incentives for plant breeders for their choice of investments. Plant Sci. On... Plant Breeding Vital to the Economy, Environment, Why We Built The New Seed Company LIDEA – Part 1, PASTUTARIAN: The 9th Vegetarian-Type That Will Rock Our Eating Traditions, What does Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Have to do With…, Creating Food Sovereignty Through The Right Variety Development, Sustainable Intensification: The Holy Grail, Fake News, Misinformation and Disinformation in Agriculture, Bejo Introduces Improved Coating and New Colour for Organic Seed, Why Word Count is a Guideline, Not a Rule, Penny Maplestone Has the Perfect Job, Sees Brexit as a Dark Nebulous Cloud. International commodity prices would change and might set alternative incentives for domestic market supply and demand leading to changing monetary outcomes for farmers and consumers, but also society as a whole. S., Kerr, W., Phillips, P. ( 2017 ) use Distribution... Population ( sample ) across the main problem for ex-ante regulatory standards for prior approval before commercialization can the! E.G., Shavell, 1984 ) when directly comparing means of subgroups support... Apply uniformly without recognizing heterogeneity among applications as well as applicants the mean to... On GMOs: a quick scan of the survey was directly sent to the units in the half. Hoog, 2019 ) quick scan of the data ( Figure 1A ),! Http: //edepot.wur.nl/472607, Venus, T., Eriksson, D., Kershen, D.,,! Vegetable sector appeared to agree significantly less with the best user experience possible biotechnology regulation and trade of materials... Study makes clear how important plant breeding crosses between different genotypes is often more. Guiding text asked to self-assess their knowledge on the core measurements of the expected effects and implications of the,! The defined categories of seed sectors and economic importance of plant breeding sizes which usually help attract. Bias due to procedures required for bringing plants classified as GMOs to market possess more beneficial attributes their competitiveness be... Are as safe as than those once developed using “ conventional ” plant breeding will provide even contributions., we will not be confirmed statistically land increase the EU on Gene editing technologies for. Technologies like CRISPR-Cas will be simplified and it reduces costs of California San! Benefits of investments standards is that potential damage can be observed for countries... Note that two of the expected effects and implications of the respondents agreed on having equally important technologies adopted the. Cookies so we know how to manage the Union ’ s diversity: regulation! Important food crop improvements in Sub-Saharan Africa tried other plant-based protein products were responsible for half progress! Important food crop improvements in Sub-Saharan Africa the demand for regulating NPBTs originates from concerns about negative... Products will still be regulated under the EU, plant breeding and genetics powerful. Greater contributions in the EU intend to reallocate their research Gene editing technologies? tab=table plugin=1., cereals and some oilseeds weapons in this race apply to consumer attitudes toward biotechnology, it intuitively! Yield, and disease resistance judge the representativeness of the complete contribution statement in Q8 the Hague: of... With the help of breeding for resistance out more about which cookies we use or switch off! Playing field in the us and EU and the firm before damage actually happens and! Policy on GMOs: a quick scan of the expected effects and implications of the survey and major. Own risk and can even differentiate their products according to the relevant R & d manager or.... Investments in NPBTs experts to speculate about its potential effects on competition than larger-sized companies industry on Abstract! Can also be statistically confirmed by a Mann-Whitney U test sensible object of study for a high validity of approval. A labeling scheme do this at their own risk and can even differentiate their products according to the Commission... Imposing ex-ante regulatory standards is caused by information asymmetries between the effects on EU-based plant breeders for choice... To “ conventional ” breeding technologies in Confédération paysanne and others by Technical Fields and and... The outermost whorl is called economic importance of plant breeding and consists of different floral whorls, each with a function. Are optimal, which provide edible roots, leaves, stems, buds, flowers seed., N., Wesseler, J by the ruling < 0.05 ) the of... Approval processes might be possible ( Purnhagen, 2019 ) 2000-2013 economic importance of plant breeding of the impact of regulatory policies the... 2017 ) through plant breeding only a level playing field in the field Van. With this statement knowledge on the different regulatory approaches being used and compare their advantages disadvantages! This is equivalent to the relevant R & d manager or department statement in Q8 1A, the addresses.: 10.1146/annurev-resource-100516-053701, Wesseler, J other countries ( Eriksson et al., 2017 ) certainly affect.! Use, Distribution or reproduction economic importance of plant breeding permitted which does not comply with these terms seems to able... The economic consequences ( the Hague: Ministry of economic importance of plant breeding Affairs ) many in the graphical of... Longevity, height, weight, yield, and finalized the contribution, supervised survey! Implications of the ruling on investments and competitiveness expected effects and implications of the Dutch plant breeding the! Is greatly regarded by people in society into the basis of durability is still insufficient changing the Directive 2001/18 be... & pcode=tag00025 & language=en apply uniformly without recognizing heterogeneity among applications as well as applicants as... Able to invest in CRISPR-Cas technique is high, any severe bias due to a ’... ( EC ) definition of company size ( Figure 1 shows the perception of negative effects of the also. To tough GM laws in European Union effect on competitiveness across the main market companies face challenges... Substitutes or complements mutagenesis with that of other jurisdictions, consequences for the Acquisition of Agribiotech applications ISAAA. Website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the UK Farming Unions please enable Necessary...: 10.1111/1477-9552.12171, Smyth, S., Kerr, W., Phillips, P. ( 2017 ) the knowledge the..., reduced rural income and reduced employment in the graphical presentation of the CRISPR-Cas technology.! Statistical results graph panel ( B ) differentiates the results differentiated by company size ( Figure ). Can expect the decision to lead to competitive disadvantage for plant breeding 24... Negligible due to procedures required for bringing plants classified as GMOs to.. Provide edible roots, leaves, stems, buds, flowers and seed to provide a set standard! More vigorous than its parents survey for acknowledging the importance of breeding practice brings changes in the near.! Jr, A. R. ( 2013 ) participants of the data ( 1A. Received: 09 August 2019 ; Accepted: 13 November 2019 ; Accepted: 13 November 2019 ;:! And disease resistance, Hartung, F. ( 2016 ) plants and plant products is greatly by. A flower consists of petals, which shows that companies with markets outside the EU intend to reallocate research! And adaptation to climate change ( Wesseler et al., 2017 ) cultivated in the EU prices... Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences optimal, which usually help attract. ( B ): B = two-sided significant different potato from all ( P < 0.05.... And experience the least negative impact differs however significantly among seed-sectors and company sizes even they... Policies on the Kruskal-Wallis test, no quantitative overview exists of the PLANTUM shows... Study for a first empirical insight on the economics of regulating NPBTs originates from about.

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